public member function
reverse_iterator rend();const_reverse_iterator rend() const;
reverse_iterator rend() noexcept;const_reverse_iterator rend() const noexcept;
Return reverse iterator to reverse end
Returns a reverse iterator pointing to the theoretical element preceding the first character of the string (which is considered its reverse end).
The range between string::rbegin and string::rend contains all the characters of the string (in reverse order).
A reverse iterator to the reverse end of the string.
If the string object is const-qualified, the function returns a const_iterator. Otherwise, it returns an iterator.
Member types reverse_iterator and const_reverse_iterator are reverse random access iterator types (pointing to a character and to a const character, respectively).
int main ()
std::string str ("now step live...");
for (std::string::reverse_iterator rit=str.rbegin(); rit!=str.rend(); ++rit)
std::cout << *rit;
This code prints out the reversed content of a string character by character using a reverse iterator that iterates between rbegin and rend. Notice how even though the reverse iterator is increased, the iteration goes backwards through the string (this is a feature of reverse iterators).
The actual output is:
Generally, no changes.
On some implementations, the non-const version may invalidate all iterators, pointers and references on the first access to string characters after the object has been constructed or modified.
The object is accessed, and in some implementations, the non-const version modifies it on the first access to string characters after the object has been constructed or modified.
The iterator returned can be used to access or modify characters.
Unspecified, but generally constant.
The object is accessed (neither the const nor the non-const versions modify it).
The iterator returned can be used to access or modify characters. Concurrently accessing or modifying different characters is safe.
No-throw guarantee: this member function never throws exceptions.
The copy construction or assignment of the returned iterator is also guaranteed to never throw.
- Return reverse iterator to reverse beginning (public member function)
- Return iterator to beginning (public member function)
- Return iterator to end (public member function)