keep track of it in a 2-d x/y mapping is the easiest way.
as you surely know by now, c++ console support is rather limited and additional libraries with whatever capability are needed to really make cool stuff. Are you suing something like ncurses etc?
The Windows console is based upon a resizeable 2-d buffer and a window display onto that buffer. If the buffer is larger than the window, then the shown window can be moved over the buffer to display the required part. The buffer can certainly be used as a '2-d array' to read/write from. You don't need a separate array to represent the console buffer.